GEPHE SUMMARY
Gephebase Gene
Entry Status
Published
GepheID
GP00001130
Main curator
Martin
PHENOTYPIC CHANGE
Trait Category
Trait State in Taxon A
Homo sapiens - Indo European haplotypes
Trait State in Taxon B
Homo sapiens -other populations
Ancestral State
Data not curated
Taxonomic Status
Taxon A
Latin Name
Common Name
human
Synonyms
human; man; Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758; Home sapiens; Homo sampiens; Homo sapeins; Homo sapian; Homo sapians; Homo sapien; Homo sapience; Homo sapiense; Homo sapients; Homo sapines; Homo spaiens; Homo spiens; Humo sapiens
Rank
species
Lineage
Show more ... opterygii; Dipnotetrapodomorpha; Tetrapoda; Amniota; Mammalia; Theria; Eutheria; Boreoeutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Simiiformes; Catarrhini; Hominoidea; Hominidae; Homininae; Homo
NCBI Taxonomy ID
is Taxon A an Infraspecies?
No
Taxon B
Latin Name
Common Name
human
Synonyms
human; man; Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758; Home sapiens; Homo sampiens; Homo sapeins; Homo sapian; Homo sapians; Homo sapien; Homo sapience; Homo sapiense; Homo sapients; Homo sapines; Homo spaiens; Homo spiens; Humo sapiens
Rank
species
Lineage
Show more ... opterygii; Dipnotetrapodomorpha; Tetrapoda; Amniota; Mammalia; Theria; Eutheria; Boreoeutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Simiiformes; Catarrhini; Hominoidea; Hominidae; Homininae; Homo
NCBI Taxonomy ID
is Taxon B an Infraspecies?
No
GENOTYPIC CHANGE
Generic Gene Name
TLR1
Synonyms
TIL; CD281; rsc786; TIL. LPRS5; KIAA0012
Sequence Similarities
Belongs to the Toll-like receptor family.
UniProtKB
Homo sapiens
GenebankID or UniProtKB
Presumptive Null
No
Molecular Type
Aberration Type
Molecular Details of the Mutation
Several Complex Haplotypes under positive selection - evidence on Adaptive Introgression from Neanderthal (2 haplotypes) and Denisova (1 haplotype)
Experimental Evidence
Authors
Laayouni H; Oosting M; Luisi P; Ioana M; Alonso S; Ricaño-Ponce I; Trynka G; Zhernakova A; et al. ... show more
Abstract
Recent historical periods in Europe have been characterized by severe epidemic events such as plague, smallpox, or influenza that shaped the immune system of modern populations. This study aims to identify signals of convergent evolution of the immune system, based on the peculiar demographic history in which two populations with different genetic ancestry, Europeans and Rroma (Gypsies), have lived in the same geographic area and have been exposed to similar environments, including infections, during the last millennium. We identified several genes under evolutionary pressure in European/Romanian and Rroma/Gipsy populations, but not in a Northwest Indian population, the geographic origin of the Rroma. Genes in the immune system were highly represented among those under strong evolutionary pressures in Europeans, and infections are likely to have played an important role. For example, Toll-like receptor 1 (TLR1)/TLR6/TLR10 gene cluster showed a strong signal of adaptive selection. Their gene products are functional receptors for Yersinia pestis, the agent of plague, as shown by overexpression studies showing induction of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF, IL-1β, and IL-6 as one possible infection that may have exerted evolutionary pressures. Immunogenetic analysis showed that TLR1, TLR6, and TLR10 single-nucleotide polymorphisms modulate Y. pestis-induced cytokine responses. Other infections may also have played an important role. Thus, reconstruction of evolutionary history of European populations has identified several immune pathways, among them TLR1/TLR6/TLR10, as being shaped by convergent evolution in two human populations with different origins under the same infectious environment.
RELATED GEPHE
Related Genes
Related Haplotypes
No matches found.
COMMENTS
@adaptive @Introgression @BalancingSelection multiple alleles (genetic heterogeneity) ; Positive and Balancing Selection
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