GEPHE SUMMARY
Entry Status
Published
GepheID
GP00001157
Main curator
Martin
PHENOTYPIC CHANGE
Trait Category
Trait State in Taxon A
Homo sapiens
Trait State in Taxon B
Homo sapiens
Ancestral State
Data not curated
Taxonomic Status
Taxon A
Latin Name
Common Name
human
Synonyms
human; man; Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758; Home sapiens; Homo sampiens; Homo sapeins; Homo sapian; Homo sapians; Homo sapien; Homo sapience; Homo sapiense; Homo sapients; Homo sapines; Homo spaiens; Homo spiens; Humo sapiens
Rank
species
Lineage
Show more ... opterygii; Dipnotetrapodomorpha; Tetrapoda; Amniota; Mammalia; Theria; Eutheria; Boreoeutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Simiiformes; Catarrhini; Hominoidea; Hominidae; Homininae; Homo
NCBI Taxonomy ID
is Taxon A an Infraspecies?
No
Taxon B
Latin Name
Common Name
human
Synonyms
human; man; Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758; Home sapiens; Homo sampiens; Homo sapeins; Homo sapian; Homo sapians; Homo sapien; Homo sapience; Homo sapiense; Homo sapients; Homo sapines; Homo spaiens; Homo spiens; Humo sapiens
Rank
species
Lineage
Show more ... opterygii; Dipnotetrapodomorpha; Tetrapoda; Amniota; Mammalia; Theria; Eutheria; Boreoeutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Simiiformes; Catarrhini; Hominoidea; Hominidae; Homininae; Homo
NCBI Taxonomy ID
is Taxon B an Infraspecies?
No
GENOTYPIC CHANGE
Presumptive Null
Molecular Type
Aberration Type
Molecular Details of the Mutation
unknown
Experimental Evidence
Authors
Frudakis T; Thomas M; Gaskin Z; Venkateswarlu K; Chandra KS; Ginjupalli S; Gunturi S; Natrajan S; et al. ... show more
Abstract
To determine whether and how common polymorphisms are associated with natural distributions of iris colors, we surveyed 851 individuals of mainly European descent at 335 SNP loci in 13 pigmentation genes and 419 other SNPs distributed throughout the genome and known or thought to be informative for certain elements of population structure. We identified numerous SNPs, haplotypes, and diplotypes (diploid pairs of haplotypes) within the OCA2, MYO5A, TYRP1, AIM, DCT, and TYR genes and the CYP1A2-15q22-ter, CYP1B1-2p21, CYP2C8-10q23, CYP2C9-10q24, and MAOA-Xp11.4 regions as significantly associated with iris colors. Half of the associated SNPs were located on chromosome 15, which corresponds with results that others have previously obtained from linkage analysis. We identified 5 additional genes (ASIP, MC1R, POMC, and SILV) and one additional region (GSTT2-22q11.23) with haplotype and/or diplotypes, but not individual SNP alleles associated with iris colors. For most of the genes, multilocus gene-wise genotype sequences were more strongly associated with iris colors than were haplotypes or SNP alleles. Diplotypes for these genes explain 15% of iris color variation. Apart from representing the first comprehensive candidate gene study for variable iris pigmentation and constituting a first step toward developing a classification model for the inference of iris color from DNA, our results suggest that cryptic population structure might serve as a leverage tool for complex trait gene mapping if genomes are screened with the appropriate ancestry informative markers.
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