GEPHE SUMMARY Print
Entry Status
Published
GepheID
GP00001372
Main curator
Prigent
PHENOTYPIC CHANGE
Trait Category
Trait State in Taxon A
Anopheles gambiae Mosquitoes- KisumuP- susceptible to OP and CX insecticides ; wild type for viability and fertility
Trait State in Taxon B
Anopheles gambiae Mosquitoes- Acerduplikis ; resistant to OP and CX insecticides ; slightly lower viability than wildtype
Ancestral State
Taxon A
Taxonomic Status
Taxon A
Common Name
African malaria mosquito
Synonyms
Anopheles gambiae S; African malaria mosquito; Anopheles gambiae Giles, 1902; Anopheles gambia
Rank
species
Lineage
Show more ... tacea; Hexapoda; Insecta; Dicondylia; Pterygota; Neoptera; Holometabola; Diptera; Nematocera; Culicomorpha; Culicoidea; Culicidae; Anophelinae; Anopheles; Cellia; Pyretophorus; gambiae species complex
NCBI Taxonomy ID
is Taxon A an Infraspecies?
Yes
Taxon A Description
Anopheles gambiae Mosquitoes- KisumuP- susceptible to OP and CX insecticides ; wild type for viability and fertility
Taxon B
Common Name
African malaria mosquito
Synonyms
Anopheles gambiae S; African malaria mosquito; Anopheles gambiae Giles, 1902; Anopheles gambia
Rank
species
Lineage
Show more ... tacea; Hexapoda; Insecta; Dicondylia; Pterygota; Neoptera; Holometabola; Diptera; Nematocera; Culicomorpha; Culicoidea; Culicidae; Anophelinae; Anopheles; Cellia; Pyretophorus; gambiae species complex
NCBI Taxonomy ID
is Taxon B an Infraspecies?
Yes
Taxon B Description
Anopheles gambiae Mosquitoes- Acerduplikis ; resistant to OP and CX insecticides ; slightly lower viability than wildtype
GENOTYPIC CHANGE
UniProtKB
Drosophila melanogaster
GenebankID or UniProtKB
Presumptive Null
No
Molecular Type
Aberration Type
Insertion Size
100-1000 kb
Molecular Details of the Mutation
Strict tandem duplication of 203kb encompassing 12 genes ; ace1 heterogeneous gene duplication (susceptible G119 and resistant S119 copies)
Experimental Evidence
Authors
Assogba BS; Milesi P; Djogbénou LS; Berthomieu A; Makoundou P; Baba-Moussa LS; Fiston-Lavier AS; Belkhir K; et al. ... show more
Abstract
Gene copy-number variations are widespread in natural populations, but investigating their phenotypic consequences requires contemporary duplications under selection. Such duplications have been found at the ace-1 locus (encoding the organophosphate and carbamate insecticides' target) in the mosquito Anopheles gambiae (the major malaria vector); recent studies have revealed their intriguing complexity, consistent with the involvement of various numbers and types (susceptible or resistant to insecticide) of copies. We used an integrative approach, from genome to phenotype level, to investigate the influence of duplication architecture and gene-dosage on mosquito fitness. We found that both heterogeneous (i.e., one susceptible and one resistant ace-1 copy) and homogeneous (i.e., identical resistant copies) duplications segregated in field populations. The number of copies in homogeneous duplications was variable and positively correlated with acetylcholinesterase activity and resistance level. Determining the genomic structure of the duplicated region revealed that, in both types of duplication, ace-1 and 11 other genes formed tandem 203kb amplicons. We developed a diagnostic test for duplications, which showed that ace-1 was amplified in all 173 resistant mosquitoes analyzed (field-collected in several African countries), in heterogeneous or homogeneous duplications. Each type was associated with different fitness trade-offs: heterogeneous duplications conferred an intermediate phenotype (lower resistance and fitness costs), whereas homogeneous duplications tended to increase both resistance and fitness cost, in a complex manner. The type of duplication selected seemed thus to depend on the intensity and distribution of selection pressures. This versatility of trade-offs available through gene duplication highlights the importance of large mutation events in adaptation to environmental variation. This impressive adaptability could have a major impact on vector control in Africa.
RELATED GEPHE
Related Haplotypes
3
COMMENTS
@GxE - this duplication probably results from an unequal crossing-over in a heterozygote R/S
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