GEPHE SUMMARY Print
Show more ... Euteleostomi; Actinopterygii; Actinopteri; Neopterygii; Teleostei; Osteoglossocephalai; Clupeocephala; Euteleosteomorpha; Neoteleostei; Eurypterygia; Ctenosquamata; Acanthomorphata; Euacanthomorphacea
NCBI Taxonomy ID
is Taxon A an Infraspecies?
Pacific bluefin tuna
Thunnus orientalis orientalis; Thunnus thynnus orientalis; Pacific bluefin tuna; North Pacific bluefin tuna; northern bluefin tuna; Thunnus orientalis (Temminck & Schlegel, 1844)
Show more ... Clupeocephala; Euteleosteomorpha; Neoteleostei; Eurypterygia; Ctenosquamata; Acanthomorphata; Euacanthomorphacea; Percomorphaceae; Pelagiaria; Scombriformes; Scombridae; Scombrinae; Thunnini; Thunnus
NCBI Taxonomy ID
is Taxon B an Infraspecies?
Generic Gene Name
RH2-1; rh2.1; zfgr1; grops1; rh21
Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family. Opsin subfamily.
GO - Molecular Function
GO:0008020 : G protein-coupled photoreceptor activity ... show more
GO - Biological Process
GO - Cellular Component
GO:0005887 : integral component of plasma membrane ... show more
SNP Coding Change
Molecular Details of the Mutation
p.E122Q (G>C) in four of five genes
|Taxon A||Taxon B||Position|
Nakamura Y; Mori K; Saitoh K; Oshima K; Mekuchi M; Sugaya T; Shigenobu Y; Ojima N; et al. ... show more
Tunas are migratory fishes in offshore habitats and top predators with unique features. Despite their ecological importance and high market values, the open-ocean lifestyle of tuna, in which effective sensing systems such as color vision are required for capture of prey, has been poorly understood. To elucidate the genetic and evolutionary basis of optic adaptation of tuna, we determined the genome sequence of the Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis), using next-generation sequencing technology. A total of 26,433 protein-coding genes were predicted from 16,802 assembled scaffolds. From these, we identified five common fish visual pigment genes: red-sensitive (middle/long-wavelength sensitive; M/LWS), UV-sensitive (short-wavelength sensitive 1; SWS1), blue-sensitive (SWS2), rhodopsin (RH1), and green-sensitive (RH2) opsin genes. Sequence comparison revealed that tuna's RH1 gene has an amino acid substitution that causes a short-wave shift in the absorption spectrum (i.e., blue shift). Pacific bluefin tuna has at least five RH2 paralogs, the most among studied fishes; four of the proteins encoded may be tuned to blue light at the amino acid level. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis suggested that gene conversions have occurred in each of the SWS2 and RH2 loci in a short period. Thus, Pacific bluefin tuna has undergone evolutionary changes in three genes (RH1, RH2, and SWS2), which may have contributed to detecting blue-green contrast and measuring the distance to prey in the blue-pelagic ocean. These findings provide basic information on behavioral traits of predatory fish and, thereby, could help to improve the technology to culture such fish in captivity for resource management.
by gene duplication and conversion there are 5 RH2 genes in tuna and four of which have the same substitution
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