GEPHE SUMMARY
Gephebase Gene
Entry Status
Published
GepheID
GP00001715
Main curator
Courtier
PHENOTYPIC CHANGE
Trait #1
Trait Category
Trait State in Taxon A
high melanin levels - lower growth rate in absence of funcicide - higher growth rate in presence of fungicide
Trait State in Taxon B
low melanin levels - higher growth rate in absence of funcicide
Trait #2
Trait Category
Trait State in Taxon A
high melanin levels - lower growth rate in absence of funcicide - higher growth rate in presence of fungicide
Trait State in Taxon B
low melanin levels - higher growth rate in absence of funcicide
Ancestral State
Data not curated
Taxonomic Status
Taxon A
Common Name
-
Synonyms
Zymoseptoria tritici (Desm.) Quaedvlieg & Crous 2011; CBS 115943; CBS:115943; IPO 323; IPO:323
Rank
species
Lineage
Show more ... ms; Eukaryota; Opisthokonta; Fungi; Dikarya; Ascomycota; saccharomyceta; Pezizomycotina; leotiomyceta; dothideomyceta; Dothideomycetes; Dothideomycetidae; Capnodiales; Mycosphaerellaceae; Zymoseptoria
NCBI Taxonomy ID
is Taxon A an Infraspecies?
Yes
Taxon A Description
strain 3D7
Taxon B
Common Name
-
Synonyms
Zymoseptoria tritici (Desm.) Quaedvlieg & Crous 2011; CBS 115943; CBS:115943; IPO 323; IPO:323
Rank
species
Lineage
Show more ... ms; Eukaryota; Opisthokonta; Fungi; Dikarya; Ascomycota; saccharomyceta; Pezizomycotina; leotiomyceta; dothideomyceta; Dothideomycetes; Dothideomycetidae; Capnodiales; Mycosphaerellaceae; Zymoseptoria
NCBI Taxonomy ID
is Taxon B an Infraspecies?
Yes
Taxon B Description
strain 3D1
GENOTYPIC CHANGE
UniProtKB
Cochliobolus heterostrophus
GenebankID or UniProtKB
Mutation #1
Presumptive Null
No
Molecular Type
Aberration Type
Insertion Size
10-100 kb
Molecular Details of the Mutation
insertion of a transposable element island (13 TE interspersed by simple repeats) of approximately 30 kb, located 1862 bp upstream of Zmr1 start codon - analysis of knock out lines of the TE island insertion
Experimental Evidence
Authors
Krishnan P; Meile L; Plissonneau C; Ma X; Hartmann FE; Croll D; McDonald BA; Sánchez-Vallet A
Abstract
Fungal plant pathogens pose major threats to crop yield and sustainable food production if they are highly adapted to their host and the local environment. Variation in gene expression contributes to phenotypic diversity within fungal species and affects adaptation. However, very few cases of adaptive regulatory changes have been reported in fungi and the underlying mechanisms remain largely unexplored. Fungal pathogen genomes are highly plastic and harbor numerous insertions of transposable elements, which can potentially contribute to gene expression regulation. In this work, we elucidated how transposable elements contribute to variation in melanin accumulation, a quantitative trait in fungi that affects survival under stressful conditions.

We demonstrated that differential transcriptional regulation of the gene encoding the transcription factor Zmr1, which controls expression of the genes in the melanin biosynthetic gene cluster, is responsible for variation in melanin accumulation in the fungal plant pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici. We show that differences in melanin levels between two strains of Z. tritici are due to two levels of transcriptional regulation: (1) variation in the promoter sequence of Zmr1 and (2) an insertion of transposable elements upstream of the Zmr1 promoter. Remarkably, independent insertions of transposable elements upstream of Zmr1 occurred in 9% of Z. tritici strains from around the world and negatively regulated Zmr1 expression, contributing to variation in melanin accumulation.

Our studies identified two levels of transcriptional control that regulate the synthesis of melanin. We propose that these regulatory mechanisms evolved to balance the fitness costs associated with melanin production against its positive contribution to survival in stressful environments.
Additional References
Mutation #2
Presumptive Null
No
Molecular Type
Aberration Type
SNP
Molecular Details of the Mutation
several candidate SNP - tests using reporter transgenes
Experimental Evidence
Authors
Krishnan P; Meile L; Plissonneau C; Ma X; Hartmann FE; Croll D; McDonald BA; Sánchez-Vallet A
Abstract
Fungal plant pathogens pose major threats to crop yield and sustainable food production if they are highly adapted to their host and the local environment. Variation in gene expression contributes to phenotypic diversity within fungal species and affects adaptation. However, very few cases of adaptive regulatory changes have been reported in fungi and the underlying mechanisms remain largely unexplored. Fungal pathogen genomes are highly plastic and harbor numerous insertions of transposable elements, which can potentially contribute to gene expression regulation. In this work, we elucidated how transposable elements contribute to variation in melanin accumulation, a quantitative trait in fungi that affects survival under stressful conditions.

We demonstrated that differential transcriptional regulation of the gene encoding the transcription factor Zmr1, which controls expression of the genes in the melanin biosynthetic gene cluster, is responsible for variation in melanin accumulation in the fungal plant pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici. We show that differences in melanin levels between two strains of Z. tritici are due to two levels of transcriptional regulation: (1) variation in the promoter sequence of Zmr1 and (2) an insertion of transposable elements upstream of the Zmr1 promoter. Remarkably, independent insertions of transposable elements upstream of Zmr1 occurred in 9% of Z. tritici strains from around the world and negatively regulated Zmr1 expression, contributing to variation in melanin accumulation.

Our studies identified two levels of transcriptional control that regulate the synthesis of melanin. We propose that these regulatory mechanisms evolved to balance the fitness costs associated with melanin production against its positive contribution to survival in stressful environments.
Additional References
RELATED GEPHE
Related Genes
No matches found.
Related Haplotypes
No matches found.
COMMENTS
@TE ; check for UniProtKB and orthology with Cmr1
YOUR FEEDBACK is welcome!