GEPHE SUMMARY
Gephebase Gene
Entry Status
Published
GepheID
GP00001939
Main curator
Courtier
PHENOTYPIC CHANGE
Trait Category
Trait State in Taxon A
presence of teeth
Trait State in Taxon B
absence of teeth
Ancestral State
Taxon A
Taxonomic Status
Taxon A
Latin Name
Common Name
whales
Synonyms
whales; cetaceans; whale; whales, dolphins, and porpoises
Rank
order
Lineage
Show more ... data; Craniata; Vertebrata; Gnathostomata; Teleostomi; Euteleostomi; Sarcopterygii; Dipnotetrapodomorpha; Tetrapoda; Amniota; Mammalia; Theria; Eutheria; Boreoeutheria; Laurasiatheria; Cetartiodactyla
NCBI Taxonomy ID
is Taxon A an Infraspecies?
No
Taxon B #1
Common Name
North Atlantic right whale
Synonyms
Balaena glacialis; North Atlantic right whale; northern right whale; Eubalaena glacialis (Mueller, 1776)
Rank
species
Lineage
Show more ... Teleostomi; Euteleostomi; Sarcopterygii; Dipnotetrapodomorpha; Tetrapoda; Amniota; Mammalia; Theria; Eutheria; Boreoeutheria; Laurasiatheria; Cetartiodactyla; Cetacea; Mysticeti; Balaenidae; Eubalaena
NCBI Taxonomy ID
is Taxon B an Infraspecies?
No
Taxon B #2
Common Name
humpback whale
Synonyms
humpback whale; Megaptera novaeanagliae
Rank
species
Lineage
Show more ... stomi; Euteleostomi; Sarcopterygii; Dipnotetrapodomorpha; Tetrapoda; Amniota; Mammalia; Theria; Eutheria; Boreoeutheria; Laurasiatheria; Cetartiodactyla; Cetacea; Mysticeti; Balaenopteridae; Megaptera
NCBI Taxonomy ID
is Taxon B an Infraspecies?
No
Taxon B #3
Common Name
grey whale
Synonyms
Balaenoptera robusta; Eschrichtius gibbosus; grey whale; California gray whale; gray whale
Rank
species
Lineage
Show more ... omi; Euteleostomi; Sarcopterygii; Dipnotetrapodomorpha; Tetrapoda; Amniota; Mammalia; Theria; Eutheria; Boreoeutheria; Laurasiatheria; Cetartiodactyla; Cetacea; Mysticeti; Eschrichtiidae; Eschrichtius
NCBI Taxonomy ID
is Taxon B an Infraspecies?
No
Taxon B #4
Common Name
pygmy right whale
Synonyms
pygmy right whale
Rank
species
Lineage
Show more ... eleostomi; Euteleostomi; Sarcopterygii; Dipnotetrapodomorpha; Tetrapoda; Amniota; Mammalia; Theria; Eutheria; Boreoeutheria; Laurasiatheria; Cetartiodactyla; Cetacea; Mysticeti; Neobalaenidae; Caperea
NCBI Taxonomy ID
is Taxon B an Infraspecies?
No
GENOTYPIC CHANGE
Presumptive Null
Yes
Molecular Type
Aberration Type
Deletion Size
1-9 bp
Molecular Details of the Mutation
1-bp deletion. Various frameshift mutations were found in the distinct species.
Experimental Evidence
Authors
Meredith RW; Gatesy J; Murphy WJ; Ryder OA; Springer MS
Abstract
Vestigial structures occur at both the anatomical and molecular levels, but studies documenting the co-occurrence of morphological degeneration in the fossil record and molecular decay in the genome are rare. Here, we use morphology, the fossil record, and phylogenetics to predict the occurrence of "molecular fossils" of the enamelin (ENAM) gene in four different orders of placental mammals (Tubulidentata, Pholidota, Cetacea, Xenarthra) with toothless and/or enamelless taxa. Our results support the "molecular fossil" hypothesis and demonstrate the occurrence of frameshift mutations and/or stop codons in all toothless and enamelless taxa. We then use a novel method based on selection intensity estimates for codons (omega) to calculate the timing of iterated enamel loss in the fossil record of aardvarks and pangolins, and further show that the molecular evolutionary history of ENAM predicts the occurrence of enamel in basal representatives of Xenarthra (sloths, anteaters, armadillos) even though frameshift mutations are ubiquitous in ENAM sequences of living xenarthrans. The molecular decay of ENAM parallels the morphological degeneration of enamel in the fossil record of placental mammals and provides manifest evidence for the predictive power of Darwin's theory.
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