GEPHE SUMMARY
Gephebase Gene
Entry Status
Published
GepheID
GP00001942
Main curator
Courtier
PHENOTYPIC CHANGE
Trait Category
Trait State in Taxon A
presence of enamel
Trait State in Taxon B
absence of enamel in teeth
Ancestral State
Taxon A
Taxonomic Status
Taxon A
Common Name
sperm whale
Synonyms
Physeter macrocephalus; sperm whale; Physeter catodon Linnaeus, 1758
Rank
species
Lineage
Show more ... leostomi; Euteleostomi; Sarcopterygii; Dipnotetrapodomorpha; Tetrapoda; Amniota; Mammalia; Theria; Eutheria; Boreoeutheria; Laurasiatheria; Cetartiodactyla; Cetacea; Odontoceti; Physeteridae; Physeter
NCBI Taxonomy ID
is Taxon A an Infraspecies?
No
Taxon B #1
Latin Name
Common Name
dwarf sperm whale
Synonyms
Kogia simus; dwarf sperm whale; Kogia sima (Owen, 1866)
Rank
species
Lineage
Show more ... Teleostomi; Euteleostomi; Sarcopterygii; Dipnotetrapodomorpha; Tetrapoda; Amniota; Mammalia; Theria; Eutheria; Boreoeutheria; Laurasiatheria; Cetartiodactyla; Cetacea; Odontoceti; Physeteridae; Kogia
NCBI Taxonomy ID
is Taxon B an Infraspecies?
No
Taxon B #2
Common Name
pygmy sperm whale
Synonyms
pygmy sperm whale
Rank
species
Lineage
Show more ... Teleostomi; Euteleostomi; Sarcopterygii; Dipnotetrapodomorpha; Tetrapoda; Amniota; Mammalia; Theria; Eutheria; Boreoeutheria; Laurasiatheria; Cetartiodactyla; Cetacea; Odontoceti; Physeteridae; Kogia
NCBI Taxonomy ID
is Taxon B an Infraspecies?
No
GENOTYPIC CHANGE
Mutation #1
Presumptive Null
Yes
Molecular Type
Aberration Type
Deletion Size
1-9 bp
Molecular Details of the Mutation
two frameshift mutations - 1-bp deletion at position 2343 and 2-bp deletion at position 4034-4035 of the alignment
Experimental Evidence
Authors
Meredith RW; Gatesy J; Murphy WJ; Ryder OA; Springer MS
Abstract
Vestigial structures occur at both the anatomical and molecular levels, but studies documenting the co-occurrence of morphological degeneration in the fossil record and molecular decay in the genome are rare. Here, we use morphology, the fossil record, and phylogenetics to predict the occurrence of "molecular fossils" of the enamelin (ENAM) gene in four different orders of placental mammals (Tubulidentata, Pholidota, Cetacea, Xenarthra) with toothless and/or enamelless taxa. Our results support the "molecular fossil" hypothesis and demonstrate the occurrence of frameshift mutations and/or stop codons in all toothless and enamelless taxa. We then use a novel method based on selection intensity estimates for codons (omega) to calculate the timing of iterated enamel loss in the fossil record of aardvarks and pangolins, and further show that the molecular evolutionary history of ENAM predicts the occurrence of enamel in basal representatives of Xenarthra (sloths, anteaters, armadillos) even though frameshift mutations are ubiquitous in ENAM sequences of living xenarthrans. The molecular decay of ENAM parallels the morphological degeneration of enamel in the fossil record of placental mammals and provides manifest evidence for the predictive power of Darwin's theory.
Mutation #2
Presumptive Null
Yes
Molecular Type
Aberration Type
Deletion Size
1-9 bp
Molecular Details of the Mutation
two frameshift mutations - 1-bp deletion at position 2343 and 2-bp deletion at position 4034-4035 of the alignment
Experimental Evidence
Authors
Meredith RW; Gatesy J; Murphy WJ; Ryder OA; Springer MS
Abstract
Vestigial structures occur at both the anatomical and molecular levels, but studies documenting the co-occurrence of morphological degeneration in the fossil record and molecular decay in the genome are rare. Here, we use morphology, the fossil record, and phylogenetics to predict the occurrence of "molecular fossils" of the enamelin (ENAM) gene in four different orders of placental mammals (Tubulidentata, Pholidota, Cetacea, Xenarthra) with toothless and/or enamelless taxa. Our results support the "molecular fossil" hypothesis and demonstrate the occurrence of frameshift mutations and/or stop codons in all toothless and enamelless taxa. We then use a novel method based on selection intensity estimates for codons (omega) to calculate the timing of iterated enamel loss in the fossil record of aardvarks and pangolins, and further show that the molecular evolutionary history of ENAM predicts the occurrence of enamel in basal representatives of Xenarthra (sloths, anteaters, armadillos) even though frameshift mutations are ubiquitous in ENAM sequences of living xenarthrans. The molecular decay of ENAM parallels the morphological degeneration of enamel in the fossil record of placental mammals and provides manifest evidence for the predictive power of Darwin's theory.
RELATED GEPHE
Related Genes
No matches found.
Related Haplotypes
No matches found.
COMMENTS
@ParrallelEvolution in baleen whales. There is an additional 2-bp deletion in the coding region in Kogia simus
YOUR FEEDBACK is welcome!