GEPHE SUMMARY Print
Gephebase Gene
Entry Status
Published
GepheID
GP00001956
Main curator
Courtier
PHENOTYPIC CHANGE
Trait Category
Trait State in Taxon A
TAS2R16 recognizes arbutin as an inverse agonist and possibly exhibits constitutive activity
Trait State in Taxon B
TAS2R16 regained the ability to recognize arbutin as an agonist
Ancestral State
Taxon A
Taxonomic Status
Taxon A #1
Common Name
ruffed lemur
Synonyms
Lemur variegatus; ruffed lemur; variegated lemur
Rank
species
Lineage
Show more ... eleostomi; Euteleostomi; Sarcopterygii; Dipnotetrapodomorpha; Tetrapoda; Amniota; Mammalia; Theria; Eutheria; Boreoeutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Strepsirrhini; Lemuriformes; Lemuridae; Varecia
NCBI Taxonomy ID
is Taxon A an Infraspecies?
No
Taxon A #2
Latin Name
Common Name
black lemur
Synonyms
Lemur macaco; Petterus macaco; black lemur; Eulemur macaco (Linnaeus, 1766)
Rank
species
Lineage
Show more ... eleostomi; Euteleostomi; Sarcopterygii; Dipnotetrapodomorpha; Tetrapoda; Amniota; Mammalia; Theria; Eutheria; Boreoeutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Strepsirrhini; Lemuriformes; Lemuridae; Eulemur
NCBI Taxonomy ID
is Taxon A an Infraspecies?
No
Taxon A #3
Common Name
Sclater's lemur
Synonyms
Eulemur macaco flavifrons; Sclater's lemur; Eulemur flavifrons Gray, 1867
Rank
species
Lineage
Show more ... eleostomi; Euteleostomi; Sarcopterygii; Dipnotetrapodomorpha; Tetrapoda; Amniota; Mammalia; Theria; Eutheria; Boreoeutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Strepsirrhini; Lemuriformes; Lemuridae; Eulemur
NCBI Taxonomy ID
is Taxon A an Infraspecies?
No
Taxon A #4
Latin Name
Common Name
brown lemur
Synonyms
Lemur fulvus; Petterus fulvus; brown lemur
Rank
species
Lineage
Show more ... eleostomi; Euteleostomi; Sarcopterygii; Dipnotetrapodomorpha; Tetrapoda; Amniota; Mammalia; Theria; Eutheria; Boreoeutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Strepsirrhini; Lemuriformes; Lemuridae; Eulemur
NCBI Taxonomy ID
is Taxon A an Infraspecies?
No
Taxon B
Latin Name
Common Name
Ring-tailed lemur
Synonyms
Ring-tailed lemur
Rank
species
Lineage
Show more ... Teleostomi; Euteleostomi; Sarcopterygii; Dipnotetrapodomorpha; Tetrapoda; Amniota; Mammalia; Theria; Eutheria; Boreoeutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Strepsirrhini; Lemuriformes; Lemuridae; Lemur
NCBI Taxonomy ID
is Taxon B an Infraspecies?
No
GENOTYPIC CHANGE
Generic Gene Name
-
Synonyms
-
String
-
Sequence Similarities
-
GO - Molecular Function
-
GO - Biological Process
-
GO - Cellular Component
-
UniProtKB
GenebankID or UniProtKB
Presumptive Null
No
Molecular Type
Aberration Type
SNP
SNP Coding Change
Nonsynonymous
Molecular Details of the Mutation
Ser282Leu TCG>TTG
Experimental Evidence
Taxon A Taxon B Position
Codon TCG TTG -
Amino-acid Ser Leu -
Authors
Itoigawa A; Hayakawa T; Suzuki-Hashido N; Imai H
Abstract
Bitter taste enables the detection of potentially harmful substances and is mediated by bitter taste receptors, TAS2Rs, in vertebrates. Few antagonists and inverse agonists of TAS2Rs have been identified, especially natural compounds. TAS2R16s in humans, apes and Old World monkeys (Catarrhini, Anthropoidea) recognize β-glucoside analogues as specific agonists. Here, we investigated responses of TAS2R16 to β-glucosides in non-anthropoid primates, namely lemurs (Lemuriformes, Strepsirrhini). Salicin acted as an agonist on lemur TAS2R16. Arbutin acted as an agonist in the ring-tailed lemur ( Lemur catta) but as an inverse agonist in black lemur ( Eulemur macaco) and black-and-white ruffed lemur ( Varecia variegata). We identified a strepsirrhine-specific amino acid substitution responsible for the inverse agonism of arbutin. In a food preference test, salicin bitterness was inhibited by arbutin in the black lemur. Structural modelling revealed this locus was important for a rearrangement of the intracellular end of transmembrane helix 7 (TM7). Accordingly, arbutin is the first known natural inverse agonist of TAS2Rs, contributing to our understanding of receptor-ligand interactions and the molecular basis of the unique feeding habit diversification in lemurs. Furthermore, the identification of a causal point mutation suggests that TAS2R can acquire functional changes according to feeding habits and environmental conditions.
Additional References
RELATED GEPHE
Related Genes
No matches found.
Related Haplotypes
1
COMMENTS
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