GEPHE SUMMARY Print
Gephebase Gene
Entry Status
Published
GepheID
GP00001966
Main curator
Courtier
PHENOTYPIC CHANGE
Trait Category
Trait State in Taxon A
non-mimetic female
Trait State in Taxon B
female mimetic to distantly related and toxic Pachliopta swallowtails
Ancestral State
Unknown
Taxonomic Status
Taxon A
Common Name
common Mormon
Synonyms
common Mormon; Papilio polytes Linnaeus, 1758
Rank
species
Lineage
Show more ... ondylia; Pterygota; Neoptera; Holometabola; Amphiesmenoptera; Lepidoptera; Glossata; Neolepidoptera; Heteroneura; Ditrysia; Obtectomera; Papilionoidea; Papilionidae; Papilioninae; Papilionini; Papilio
NCBI Taxonomy ID
is Taxon A an Infraspecies?
No
Taxon B
Common Name
common Mormon
Synonyms
common Mormon; Papilio polytes Linnaeus, 1758
Rank
species
Lineage
Show more ... ondylia; Pterygota; Neoptera; Holometabola; Amphiesmenoptera; Lepidoptera; Glossata; Neolepidoptera; Heteroneura; Ditrysia; Obtectomera; Papilionoidea; Papilionidae; Papilioninae; Papilionini; Papilio
NCBI Taxonomy ID
is Taxon B an Infraspecies?
No
GENOTYPIC CHANGE
Generic Gene Name
dsx
Synonyms
CG11094; Dmdsx; Dmel\CG11094; Dsx; DSX; dsxF; dsxM; Hr; ix-62c
Sequence Similarities
-
GO - Cellular Component
UniProtKB
Drosophila melanogaster
GenebankID or UniProtKB
Presumptive Null
No
Molecular Type
Aberration Type
Molecular Details of the Mutation
More than 1000 nucleotide substitutions differentiate mimetic and non-mimetic dsx alleles. The non-mimetic Cyrus Dsx protein folds much like other insects (such as Bombyx mori) whereas the mimetic polytes protein structure is highly divergent. Knockdown experiments show that female-specific dsx isoforms expressed from the inverted H allele (dsx(H)) induce mimetic coloration patterns and simultaneously repress non-mimetic patterns.
Experimental Evidence
Authors
Kunte K; Zhang W; Tenger-Trolander A; Palmer DH; Martin A; Reed RD; Mullen SP; Kronforst MR
Abstract
One of the most striking examples of sexual dimorphism is sex-limited mimicry in butterflies, a phenomenon in which one sex--usually the female--mimics a toxic model species, whereas the other sex displays a different wing pattern. Sex-limited mimicry is phylogenetically widespread in the swallowtail butterfly genus Papilio, in which it is often associated with female mimetic polymorphism. In multiple polymorphic species, the entire wing pattern phenotype is controlled by a single Mendelian 'supergene'. Although theoretical work has explored the evolutionary dynamics of supergene mimicry, there are almost no empirical data that address the critical issue of what a mimicry supergene actually is at a functional level. Using an integrative approach combining genetic and association mapping, transcriptome and genome sequencing, and gene expression analyses, we show that a single gene, doublesex, controls supergene mimicry in Papilio polytes. This is in contrast to the long-held view that supergenes are likely to be controlled by a tightly linked cluster of loci. Analysis of gene expression and DNA sequence variation indicates that isoform expression differences contribute to the functional differences between dsx mimicry alleles, and protein sequence evolution may also have a role. Our results combine elements from different hypotheses for the identity of supergenes, showing that a single gene can switch the entire wing pattern among mimicry phenotypes but may require multiple, tightly linked mutations to do so.
RELATED GEPHE
Related Genes
No matches found.
Related Haplotypes
No matches found.
EXTERNAL LINKS
COMMENTS
Locus previously thought to be a @Supergene - is actually narrowed down to a single gene. An inversion whose breakpoints flank dsx prevents recombination between the divergent alleles of dox. The divergent alleles are about 130 kb.
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