GEPHE SUMMARY Print
Gephebase Gene
Entry Status
Published
GepheID
GP00001967
Main curator
Courtier
PHENOTYPIC CHANGE
Trait Category
Trait State in Taxon A
non-mimetic female
Trait State in Taxon B
female mimetic to distantly related and toxic swallowtails in the genera Pachliopta and Atrophaneura
Ancestral State
Unknown
Taxonomic Status
Taxon A
Latin Name
Common Name
-
Synonyms
Papilio memnon Linnaeus, 1758
Rank
species
Lineage
Show more ... ondylia; Pterygota; Neoptera; Holometabola; Amphiesmenoptera; Lepidoptera; Glossata; Neolepidoptera; Heteroneura; Ditrysia; Obtectomera; Papilionoidea; Papilionidae; Papilioninae; Papilionini; Papilio
NCBI Taxonomy ID
is Taxon A an Infraspecies?
No
Taxon B
Latin Name
Common Name
-
Synonyms
Papilio memnon Linnaeus, 1758
Rank
species
Lineage
Show more ... ondylia; Pterygota; Neoptera; Holometabola; Amphiesmenoptera; Lepidoptera; Glossata; Neolepidoptera; Heteroneura; Ditrysia; Obtectomera; Papilionoidea; Papilionidae; Papilioninae; Papilionini; Papilio
NCBI Taxonomy ID
is Taxon B an Infraspecies?
No
GENOTYPIC CHANGE
Generic Gene Name
dsx
Synonyms
CG11094; Dmdsx; Dmel\CG11094; Dsx; DSX; dsxF; dsxM; Hr; ix-62c
Sequence Similarities
-
GO - Cellular Component
UniProtKB
Drosophila melanogaster
GenebankID or UniProtKB
Presumptive Null
No
Molecular Type
Aberration Type
Molecular Details of the Mutation
A locus containing three genes (dsx; Nach-like and UXT) displays dimorphic sequences strictly associated with the mimetic/nonmimetic phenotypes. Expression of dox; UXT but not Nach-like showed differences correlated with phenotype in female hind wings.
Experimental Evidence
Authors
Iijima T; Kajitani R; Komata S; Lin CP; Sota T; Itoh T; Fujiwara H
Abstract
Batesian mimicry protects animals from predators when mimics resemble distasteful models. The female-limited Batesian mimicry in Papilio butterflies is controlled by a supergene locus switching mimetic and nonmimetic forms. In Papilio polytes, recent studies revealed that a highly diversified region (HDR) containing doublesex (dsx-HDR) constitutes the supergene with dimorphic alleles and is likely maintained by a chromosomal inversion. In the closely related Papilio memnon, which exhibits a similar mimicry polymorphism, we performed whole-genome sequence analyses in 11 butterflies, which revealed a nearly identical dsx-HDR containing three genes (dsx, Nach-like, and UXT) with dimorphic sequences strictly associated with the mimetic/nonmimetic phenotypes. In addition, expression of these genes, except that of Nach-like in female hind wings, showed differences correlated with phenotype. The dimorphic dsx-HDR in P. memnon is maintained without a chromosomal inversion, suggesting that a separate mechanism causes and maintains allelic divergence in these genes. More abundant accumulation of transposable elements and repetitive sequences in the dsx-HDR than in other genomic regions may contribute to the suppression of chromosomal recombination. Gene trees for Dsx, Nach-like, and UXT indicated that mimetic alleles evolved independently in the two Papilio species. These results suggest that the genomic region involving the above three genes has repeatedly diverged so that two allelic sequences of this region function as developmental switches for mimicry polymorphism in the two Papilio species. The supergene structures revealed here suggest that independent evolutionary processes with different genetic mechanisms have led to parallel evolution of similar female-limited polymorphisms underlying Batesian mimicry in Papilio butterflies.
RELATED GEPHE
Related Genes
No matches found.
Related Haplotypes
No matches found.
EXTERNAL LINKS
COMMENTS
Locus previously thought to be a @Supergene - is actually narrowed down to three genes. An inversion prevents recombination between the divergent alleles. @TE repeats @Parallelism Gene trees for Dsx; Nach-like and UXT indicate that mimetic alleles evolved independently in the two Papilio species.
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