GEPHE SUMMARY Print
Gephebase Gene
Entry Status
Published
GepheID
GP00000201
Main curator
Martin
PHENOTYPIC CHANGE
Trait Category
Trait State in Taxon A
Spinus cucullatus - red siskin ; production of carotenoids (liver; skin)
Trait State in Taxon B
Serinus canaria - Yellow common canaries
Ancestral State
Data not curated
Taxonomic Status
Taxon A
Common Name
red siskin
Synonyms
Carduelis cucullata; red siskin; Spinus cucullatus Swainson, 1820
Rank
species
Lineage
Show more ... a; Tetrapoda; Amniota; Sauropsida; Sauria; Archelosauria; Archosauria; Dinosauria; Saurischia; Theropoda; Coelurosauria; Aves; Neognathae; Passeriformes; Passeroidea; Fringillidae; Carduelinae; Spinus
NCBI Taxonomy ID
is Taxon A an Infraspecies?
No
Taxon B
Common Name
common canary
Synonyms
Serinus canarius; common canary; canary; Serinus canaria (Linnaeus, 1758)
Rank
species
Lineage
Show more ... ; Tetrapoda; Amniota; Sauropsida; Sauria; Archelosauria; Archosauria; Dinosauria; Saurischia; Theropoda; Coelurosauria; Aves; Neognathae; Passeriformes; Passeroidea; Fringillidae; Carduelinae; Serinus
NCBI Taxonomy ID
is Taxon B an Infraspecies?
No
GENOTYPIC CHANGE
UniProtKB
Homo sapiens
GenebankID or UniProtKB
Presumptive Null
Molecular Type
Aberration Type
Molecular Details of the Mutation
unknown
Experimental Evidence
Authors
Lopes RJ; Johnson JD; Toomey MB; Ferreira MS; Araujo PM; Melo-Ferreira J; Andersson L; Hill GE; et al. ... show more
Abstract
The yellow and red feather pigmentation of many bird species [1] plays pivotal roles in social signaling and mate choice [2, 3]. To produce red pigments, birds ingest yellow carotenoids and endogenously convert them into red ketocarotenoids via an oxidation reaction catalyzed by a previously unknown ketolase [4-6]. We investigated the genetic basis for red coloration in birds using whole-genome sequencing of red siskins (Spinus cucullata), common canaries (Serinus canaria), and "red factor" canaries, which are the hybrid product of crossing red siskins with common canaries [7]. We identified two genomic regions introgressed from red siskins into red factor canaries that are required for red coloration. One of these regions contains a gene encoding a cytochrome P450 enzyme, CYP2J19. Transcriptome analysis demonstrates that CYP2J19 is significantly upregulated in the skin and liver of red factor canaries, strongly implicating CYP2J19 as the ketolase that mediates red coloration in birds. Interestingly, a second introgressed region required for red feathers resides within the epidermal differentiation complex, a cluster of genes involved in development of the integument. Lastly, we present evidence that CYP2J19 is involved in ketocarotenoid formation in the retina. The discovery of the carotenoid ketolase has important implications for understanding sensory function and signaling mediated by carotenoid pigmentation.

Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Additional References
RELATED GEPHE
Related Genes
No matches found.
Related Haplotypes
No matches found.
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