GEPHE SUMMARY Print
Gephebase Gene
Entry Status
Published
GepheID
GP00002025
Main curator
Courtier
PHENOTYPIC CHANGE
Trait Category
Trait State in Taxon A
Bos taurus - normal milk
Trait State in Taxon B
Bos taurus - A milk - mostly lacks a form of β-casein proteins called A1 and instead has mostly the A2 form - allele A2
Ancestral State
Taxon A
Taxonomic Status
Taxon A
Latin Name
Common Name
cattle
Synonyms
Bos bovis; Bos primigenius taurus; cattle; bovine; cow; dairy cow; domestic cattle; domestic cow; Bos taurus Linnaeus, 1758; Bos Tauurus
Rank
species
Lineage
Show more ... Teleostomi; Euteleostomi; Sarcopterygii; Dipnotetrapodomorpha; Tetrapoda; Amniota; Mammalia; Theria; Eutheria; Boreoeutheria; Laurasiatheria; Cetartiodactyla; Ruminantia; Pecora; Bovidae; Bovinae; Bos
NCBI Taxonomy ID
is Taxon A an Infraspecies?
No
Taxon B
Latin Name
Common Name
cattle
Synonyms
Bos bovis; Bos primigenius taurus; cattle; bovine; cow; dairy cow; domestic cattle; domestic cow; Bos taurus Linnaeus, 1758; Bos Tauurus
Rank
species
Lineage
Show more ... Teleostomi; Euteleostomi; Sarcopterygii; Dipnotetrapodomorpha; Tetrapoda; Amniota; Mammalia; Theria; Eutheria; Boreoeutheria; Laurasiatheria; Cetartiodactyla; Ruminantia; Pecora; Bovidae; Bovinae; Bos
NCBI Taxonomy ID
is Taxon B an Infraspecies?
No
GENOTYPIC CHANGE
Presumptive Null
No
Molecular Type
Aberration Type
SNP
SNP Coding Change
Nonsynonymous
Molecular Details of the Mutation
g.87181619A>C c.245A>C p.H82P CAT>CCT
Experimental Evidence
Taxon A Taxon B Position
Codon CAT CCT 87181619
Amino-acid His Pro 82
Authors
Gallinat JL; Qanbari S; Drögemüller C; Pimentel EC; Thaller G; Tetens J
Abstract
In cattle, at least 39 variants of the 4 casein proteins (α(S1)-, β-, α(S2)- and κ-casein) have been described to date. Many of these variants are known to affect milk-production traits, cheese-processing properties, and the nutritive value of milk. They also provide valuable information for phylogenetic studies. So far, the majority of studies exploring the genetic variability of bovine caseins considered European taurine cattle breeds and were carried out at the protein level by electrophoretic techniques. This only allows the identification of variants that, due to amino acid exchanges, differ in their electric charge, molecular weight, or isoelectric point. In this study, the open reading frames of the casein genes CSN1S1, CSN2, CSN1S2, and CSN3 of 356 animals belonging to 14 taurine and 3 indicine cattle breeds were sequenced. With this approach, we identified 23 alleles, including 5 new DNA sequence variants, with a predicted effect on the protein sequence. The new variants were only found in indicine breeds and in one local Iranian breed, which has been phenotypically classified as a taurine breed. A multidimensional scaling approach based on available SNP chip data, however, revealed an admixture of taurine and indicine populations in this breed as well as in the local Iranian breed Golpayegani. Specific indicine casein alleles were also identified in a few European taurine breeds, indicating the introgression of indicine breeds into these populations. This study shows the existence of substantial undiscovered genetic variability of bovine casein loci, especially in indicine cattle breeds. The identification of new variants is a valuable tool for phylogenetic studies and investigations into the evolution of the milk protein genes.

Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Additional References
RELATED GEPHE
Related Genes
No matches found.
Related Haplotypes
No matches found.
COMMENTS
https://omia.org/OMIA002033/9913/
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