GEPHE SUMMARY Print
Gephebase Gene
Entry Status
Published
GepheID
GP00002038
Main curator
Courtier
PHENOTYPIC CHANGE
Trait #1
Trait Category
Trait State in Taxon A
wild-type – wedge shaped body morphology; small dorsal fin; asymmetric caudal fin
Trait State in Taxon B
Tear-drop shaped body morphology; shape of dorsal fin resembles shape of anal fin; symmetric caudal fin
Trait #2
Trait Category
Trait State in Taxon A
wild-type - lack of bright pigmentation on the back
Trait State in Taxon B
bright pigmentation on back
Ancestral State
Taxon A
Taxonomic Status
Taxon A
Common Name
Japanese medaka
Synonyms
Poecilia latipes; Japanese medaka; Japanese rice fish; medaka; Oryzias latipes (Temminck & Schlegel, 1846); Poecilia latipes Temminck & Schlegel, 1846; Orizias latipes
Rank
species
Lineage
Show more ... ha; Neoteleostei; Eurypterygia; Ctenosquamata; Acanthomorphata; Euacanthomorphacea; Percomorphaceae; Ovalentaria; Atherinomorphae; Beloniformes; Adrianichthyoidei; Adrianichthyidae; Oryziinae; Oryzias
NCBI Taxonomy ID
is Taxon A an Infraspecies?
No
Taxon B
Common Name
Japanese medaka
Synonyms
Poecilia latipes; Japanese medaka; Japanese rice fish; medaka; Oryzias latipes (Temminck & Schlegel, 1846); Poecilia latipes Temminck & Schlegel, 1846; Orizias latipes
Rank
species
Lineage
Show more ... ha; Neoteleostei; Eurypterygia; Ctenosquamata; Acanthomorphata; Euacanthomorphacea; Percomorphaceae; Ovalentaria; Atherinomorphae; Beloniformes; Adrianichthyoidei; Adrianichthyidae; Oryziinae; Oryzias
NCBI Taxonomy ID
is Taxon B an Infraspecies?
No
GENOTYPIC CHANGE
UniProtKB
Mus musculus
GenebankID or UniProtKB
Presumptive Null
No
Molecular Type
Aberration Type
Insertion Size
100-1000 kb
Molecular Details of the Mutation
The mutant phenotype is caused by a dramatic decrease of zic1/zic4 expression in the dorsal somites. The insertion of a transposon (“Albatross”) into an enhancer region (downstream of zic4) of the transcription factors zic1 and zic4 causes this phenotype. Both genes are expressed by a bi-directional promoter. The transposon insertion is proposed to interfere with the transcriptional regulation of zic1/zic4; resulting in the disturbance of the expression of the transcription factors in the dorsal somites (the expression of zic1/zic4 in other parts of the body is not affected in this mutant) and ultimately causing a ventralized trunk phenotype. In Inoue et al. (2017) it was shown that the transposon “Albatross” is actually larger than originally predicted; and is now called “Teratorn”. Teratorn is around 180kb long and appears to originate from the fusion of a DNA transposon and a herpesvirus.
Experimental Evidence
Authors
Moriyama Y; Kawanishi T; Nakamura R; Tsukahara T; Sumiyama K; Suster ML; Kawakami K; Toyoda A; et al. ... show more
Abstract
Teleosts have an asymmetrical caudal fin skeleton formed by the upward bending of the caudal-most portion of the body axis, the ural region. This homocercal type of caudal fin ensures powerful and complex locomotion and is regarded as one of the most important innovations for teleosts during adaptive radiation in an aquatic environment. However, the mechanisms that create asymmetric caudal fin remain largely unknown. The spontaneous medaka (teleost fish) mutant, Double anal fin (Da), exhibits a unique symmetrical caudal skeleton that resembles the diphycercal type seen in Polypterus and Coelacanth. We performed a detailed analysis of the Da mutant to obtain molecular insight into caudal fin morphogenesis. We first demonstrate that a large transposon, inserted into the enhancer region of the zic1 and zic4 genes (zic1/zic4) in Da, is associated with the mesoderm-specific loss of their transcription. We then show that zic1/zic4 are strongly expressed in the dorsal part of the ural mesenchyme and thereby induce asymmetric caudal fin development in wild-type embryos, whereas their expression is lost in Da. Comparative analysis further indicates that the dorsal mesoderm expression of zic1/zic4 is conserved in teleosts, highlighting the crucial role of zic1/zic4 in caudal fin morphogenesis.

Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
RELATED GEPHE
Related Genes
No matches found.
Related Haplotypes
No matches found.
COMMENTS
@TE - The mutant was isolated by chance from a wild population in the 1960s. Validated by Ann Kathrin Heilig.
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