GEPHE SUMMARY Print
Gephebase Gene
Entry Status
Published
GepheID
GP00002051
Main curator
Courtier
PHENOTYPIC CHANGE
Trait Category
Trait State in Taxon A
C. annuum
Trait State in Taxon B
C. annuum KC00134 - purple flowers; leaves; fruits
Ancestral State
Taxon A
Taxonomic Status
Taxon A
Common Name
-
Synonyms
Capsicum annuum L.; Capsicum annum; Capsicum capsicum
Rank
species
Lineage
Show more ... ophyta; Tracheophyta; Euphyllophyta; Spermatophyta; Magnoliophyta; Mesangiospermae; eudicotyledons; Gunneridae; Pentapetalae; asterids; lamiids; Solanales; Solanaceae; Solanoideae; Capsiceae; Capsicum
NCBI Taxonomy ID
is Taxon A an Infraspecies?
No
Taxon B
Common Name
-
Synonyms
Capsicum annuum L.; Capsicum annum; Capsicum capsicum
Rank
species
Lineage
Show more ... ophyta; Tracheophyta; Euphyllophyta; Spermatophyta; Magnoliophyta; Mesangiospermae; eudicotyledons; Gunneridae; Pentapetalae; asterids; lamiids; Solanales; Solanaceae; Solanoideae; Capsiceae; Capsicum
NCBI Taxonomy ID
is Taxon B an Infraspecies?
Yes
Taxon B Description
KC00134
GENOTYPIC CHANGE
Generic Gene Name
AN2
Synonyms
-
String
-
Sequence Similarities
-
GO - Biological Process
-
GO - Cellular Component
UniProtKB
Petunia integrifolia
GenebankID or UniProtKB
Presumptive Null
No
Molecular Type
Aberration Type
Insertion Size
1-10 kb
Molecular Details of the Mutation
insertion of a 4.2 kb non-LTR retrotransposon in the promoter (672 bp upstream of the start codon of CaAn2) which may activate expression of CaAn2 by recruiting transcription factors at the 3' UTR
Experimental Evidence
Authors
Jung S; Venkatesh J; Kang MY; Kwon JK; Kang BC
Abstract
The flavonoid compound anthocyanin is an important plant metabolite with nutritional and aesthetic value as well as anti-oxidative capacity. MYB transcription factors are key regulators of anthocyanin biosynthesis in plants. In pepper (Capsicum annuum), the CaAn2 gene, encoding an R2R3 MYB transcription factor, regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis. However, no functional study or structural analysis of functional and dysfunctional CaAn2 alleles has been performed. Here, to elucidate the function of CaAn2, we generated transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis thaliana plants expressing CaAn2. All of the tissues in these plants were purple. Promoter analysis of CaAn2 in purple C. annuum 'KC00134' plants revealed the insertion of a non-long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposon designated Ca-nLTR-A. To determine the promoter activity and functional domain of Ca-nLTR-A, various constructs carrying different domains of Ca-nLTR-A fused with GUS were transformed into N. benthamiana. Promoter analysis showed that the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of the second open reading frame of Ca-nLTR-A is responsible for CaAn2 expression in 'KC00134'. Sequence analysis of Ca-nLTR-A identified transcription factor binding sites known to regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis. This study indicates that insertion of a non-LTR retrotransposon in the promoter may activate expression of CaAn2 by recruiting transcription factors at the 3' UTR and thus provides the first example of exaptation of a non-LTR retrotransposon into a new promoter in plants.

Copyright © 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Additional References
RELATED GEPHE
Related Genes
No matches found.
Related Haplotypes
1
COMMENTS
@TE - Email reply of Soyoung Jung (Nov 2019): The mutation is in the same gene as the one identified by Borovsky et al. (2004) for pepper variety 5226 (purple-fruited) (gephe #87). Whether the 4.2-kb insertion is present in variety 5226 is unknown, so this entry is different from gephe entry #87.
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