GEPHE SUMMARY Print
Gephebase Gene
Entry Status
Published
GepheID
GP00000207
Main curator
Martin
PHENOTYPIC CHANGE
Trait Category
Trait State in Taxon A
Drosophila melanogaster - susceptible - rare allele with no Accord insertion; only reported in some African populations
Trait State in Taxon B
Drosophila melanogaster - resistant
Ancestral State
Taxon A
Taxonomic Status
Taxon A
Common Name
fruit fly
Synonyms
Sophophora melanogaster; fruit fly; Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, 1830; Sophophora melanogaster (Meigen, 1830); Drosophila melangaster
Rank
species
Lineage
Show more ... Brachycera; Muscomorpha; Eremoneura; Cyclorrhapha; Schizophora; Acalyptratae; Ephydroidea; Drosophilidae; Drosophilinae; Drosophilini; Drosophila; Sophophora; melanogaster group; melanogaster subgroup
NCBI Taxonomy ID
is Taxon A an Infraspecies?
No
Taxon B
Common Name
fruit fly
Synonyms
Sophophora melanogaster; fruit fly; Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, 1830; Sophophora melanogaster (Meigen, 1830); Drosophila melangaster
Rank
species
Lineage
Show more ... Brachycera; Muscomorpha; Eremoneura; Cyclorrhapha; Schizophora; Acalyptratae; Ephydroidea; Drosophilidae; Drosophilinae; Drosophilini; Drosophila; Sophophora; melanogaster group; melanogaster subgroup
NCBI Taxonomy ID
is Taxon B an Infraspecies?
No
GENOTYPIC CHANGE
Generic Gene Name
Cyp6g1
Synonyms
6g1; anon-WO03025223.16; anon-WO03025223.17; CG8453; Cyp6-like; cyp6g1; Cyp6G1; CYP6g1; CYP6G1; Cyp6gl; DDT-R; Dmel-Cyp6g1; Dmel\CG8453; RDDT; RI; RI[DDT]; RI[II]; Rst(2)DDT; CYP6-like
Sequence Similarities
Belongs to the cytochrome P450 family.
UniProtKB
Drosophila melanogaster
GenebankID or UniProtKB
Mutation #1
Presumptive Null
No
Molecular Type
Aberration Type
Insertion Size
100-999 bp
Molecular Details of the Mutation
Insertion of 491 base pairs presenting homology to the long terminal repeat of an Accord transposable element 291bp upstream of the Cyp6g1 transcription start site
Experimental Evidence
Authors
Chung H; Bogwitz MR; McCart C; Andrianopoulos A; Ffrench-Constant RH; Batterham P; Daborn PJ
Abstract
Transposable elements are a major mutation source and powerful agents of adaptive change. Some transposable element insertions in genomes increase to a high frequency because of the selective advantage the mutant phenotype provides. Cyp6g1-mediated insecticide resistance in Drosophila melanogaster is due to the upregulation of the cytochrome P450 gene Cyp6g1, leading to the resistance to a variety of insecticide classes. The upregulation of Cyp6g1 is correlated with the presence of the long terminal repeat (LTR) of an Accord retrotransposon inserted 291bp upstream of the Cyp6g1 transcription start site. This resistant allele (DDT-R) is currently at a high frequency in D. melanogaster populations around the world. Here, we characterize the spatial expression of Cyp6g1 in insecticide-resistant and -susceptible strains. We show that the Accord LTR insertion is indeed the resistance-associated mutation and demonstrate that the Accord LTR carries regulatory sequences that increase the expression of Cyp6g1 in tissues important for detoxification, the midgut, Malpighian tubules, and the fat body. This study provides a significant example of how changes in tissue-specific gene expression caused by transposable-element insertions can contribute to adaptation.
Additional References
Mutation #2
Presumptive Null
No
Molecular Type
Aberration Type
Insertion Size
1-10 kb
Molecular Details of the Mutation
duplication of the Cyp6g1 locus with insertion of the Accord element in both promoters (allele AA)
Experimental Evidence
Authors
Schmidt JM; Good RT; Appleton B; Sherrard J; Raymant GC; Bogwitz MR; Martin J; Daborn PJ; et al. ... show more
Abstract
The increased transcription of the Cyp6g1 gene of Drosophila melanogaster, and consequent resistance to insecticides such as DDT, is a widely cited example of adaptation mediated by cis-regulatory change. A fragment of an Accord transposable element inserted upstream of the Cyp6g1 gene is causally associated with resistance and has spread to high frequencies in populations around the world since the 1940s. Here we report the existence of a natural allelic series at this locus of D. melanogaster, involving copy number variation of Cyp6g1, and two additional transposable element insertions (a P and an HMS-Beagle). We provide evidence that this genetic variation underpins phenotypic variation, as the more derived the allele, the greater the level of DDT resistance. Tracking the spatial and temporal patterns of allele frequency changes indicates that the multiple steps of the allelic series are adaptive. Further, a DDT association study shows that the most resistant allele, Cyp6g1-[BP], is greatly enriched in the top 5% of the phenotypic distribution and accounts for approximately 16% of the underlying phenotypic variation in resistance to DDT. In contrast, copy number variation for another candidate resistance gene, Cyp12d1, is not associated with resistance. Thus the Cyp6g1 locus is a major contributor to DDT resistance in field populations, and evolution at this locus features multiple adaptive steps occurring in rapid succession.
Additional References
Mutation #3
Presumptive Null
No
Molecular Type
Aberration Type
Insertion Size
1-10 kb
Molecular Details of the Mutation
insertion of a HMS-Beagle element in one of the two Accord element (allele AB derived from allele AA)
Experimental Evidence
Authors
Schmidt JM; Good RT; Appleton B; Sherrard J; Raymant GC; Bogwitz MR; Martin J; Daborn PJ; et al. ... show more
Abstract
The increased transcription of the Cyp6g1 gene of Drosophila melanogaster, and consequent resistance to insecticides such as DDT, is a widely cited example of adaptation mediated by cis-regulatory change. A fragment of an Accord transposable element inserted upstream of the Cyp6g1 gene is causally associated with resistance and has spread to high frequencies in populations around the world since the 1940s. Here we report the existence of a natural allelic series at this locus of D. melanogaster, involving copy number variation of Cyp6g1, and two additional transposable element insertions (a P and an HMS-Beagle). We provide evidence that this genetic variation underpins phenotypic variation, as the more derived the allele, the greater the level of DDT resistance. Tracking the spatial and temporal patterns of allele frequency changes indicates that the multiple steps of the allelic series are adaptive. Further, a DDT association study shows that the most resistant allele, Cyp6g1-[BP], is greatly enriched in the top 5% of the phenotypic distribution and accounts for approximately 16% of the underlying phenotypic variation in resistance to DDT. In contrast, copy number variation for another candidate resistance gene, Cyp12d1, is not associated with resistance. Thus the Cyp6g1 locus is a major contributor to DDT resistance in field populations, and evolution at this locus features multiple adaptive steps occurring in rapid succession.
Additional References
Mutation #4
Presumptive Null
No
Molecular Type
Aberration Type
Insertion Size
1-10 kb
Molecular Details of the Mutation
insertion of a P element in one of the two Cyp6g1 copies (allele BP derived from allele AB). Allele BP contains two copies of Cyp6g1 both with the Accord insertion,; one of the Accord contains the HMS-Beagle element and the other the P-element.
Experimental Evidence
Authors
Schmidt JM; Good RT; Appleton B; Sherrard J; Raymant GC; Bogwitz MR; Martin J; Daborn PJ; et al. ... show more
Abstract
The increased transcription of the Cyp6g1 gene of Drosophila melanogaster, and consequent resistance to insecticides such as DDT, is a widely cited example of adaptation mediated by cis-regulatory change. A fragment of an Accord transposable element inserted upstream of the Cyp6g1 gene is causally associated with resistance and has spread to high frequencies in populations around the world since the 1940s. Here we report the existence of a natural allelic series at this locus of D. melanogaster, involving copy number variation of Cyp6g1, and two additional transposable element insertions (a P and an HMS-Beagle). We provide evidence that this genetic variation underpins phenotypic variation, as the more derived the allele, the greater the level of DDT resistance. Tracking the spatial and temporal patterns of allele frequency changes indicates that the multiple steps of the allelic series are adaptive. Further, a DDT association study shows that the most resistant allele, Cyp6g1-[BP], is greatly enriched in the top 5% of the phenotypic distribution and accounts for approximately 16% of the underlying phenotypic variation in resistance to DDT. In contrast, copy number variation for another candidate resistance gene, Cyp12d1, is not associated with resistance. Thus the Cyp6g1 locus is a major contributor to DDT resistance in field populations, and evolution at this locus features multiple adaptive steps occurring in rapid succession.
Additional References
COMMENTS
@TE @SuccessiveMutations @SelectiveSweep - http://flybase.org/reports/FBal0014805
YOUR FEEDBACK is welcome!