GEPHE SUMMARY Print
Gephebase Gene
Entry Status
Published
GepheID
GP00000209
Main curator
Martin
PHENOTYPIC CHANGE
Trait Category
Trait State in Taxon A
Anopheles funestus - sensitive
Trait State in Taxon B
Anopheles funestus - resistant
Ancestral State
Taxon A
Taxonomic Status
Taxon A
Common Name
African malaria mosquito
Synonyms
African malaria mosquito; Anopheles funestus Giles, 1900
Rank
species
Lineage
Show more ... Hexapoda; Insecta; Dicondylia; Pterygota; Neoptera; Holometabola; Diptera; Nematocera; Culicomorpha; Culicoidea; Culicidae; Anophelinae; Anopheles; Cellia; Myzomyia; funestus group; funestus subgroup
NCBI Taxonomy ID
is Taxon A an Infraspecies?
No
Taxon B
Common Name
African malaria mosquito
Synonyms
African malaria mosquito; Anopheles funestus Giles, 1900
Rank
species
Lineage
Show more ... Hexapoda; Insecta; Dicondylia; Pterygota; Neoptera; Holometabola; Diptera; Nematocera; Culicomorpha; Culicoidea; Culicidae; Anophelinae; Anopheles; Cellia; Myzomyia; funestus group; funestus subgroup
NCBI Taxonomy ID
is Taxon B an Infraspecies?
No
GENOTYPIC CHANGE
UniProtKB
Anopheles funestus
GenebankID or UniProtKB
Presumptive Null
No
Molecular Type
Aberration Type
Molecular Details of the Mutation
unknown; but 10-30 fold differences in expression levels between phenotypes
Experimental Evidence
Authors
Wondji CS; Irving H; Morgan J; Lobo NF; Collins FH; Hunt RH; Coetzee M; Hemingway J; et al. ... show more
Abstract
Pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles funestus is a potential obstacle to malaria control in Africa. Tools are needed to detect resistance in field populations. We have been using a positional cloning approach to identify the major genes conferring pyrethroid resistance in this vector. A quantitative trait locus (QTL) named rp1 explains 87% of the genetic variance in pyrethroid susceptibility in two families from reciprocal crosses between susceptible and resistant strains. Two additional QTLs of minor effect, rp2 and rp3, were also detected. We sequenced a 120-kb BAC clone spanning the rp1 QTL and identified 14 protein-coding genes and one putative pseudogene. Ten of the 14 genes encoded cytochrome P450s, and expression analysis indicated that four of these P450s were differentially expressed between susceptible and resistant strains. Furthermore, two of these genes, CYP6P9 and CYP6P4, which are 25 and 51 times overexpressed in resistant females, are tandemly duplicated in the BAC clone as well as in laboratory and field samples, suggesting that P450 gene duplication could contribute to pyrethroid resistance in An. funestus. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified within CYP6P9 and CYP6P4, and genotyping of the progeny of the genetic crosses revealed a maximum penetrance value f(2) = 1, confirming that these SNPs are valid resistance markers in the laboratory strains. This serves as proof of principle that a DNA-based diagnostic test could be designed to trace metabolic resistance in field populations. This will be a major advance for insecticide resistance management in malaria vectors, which requires the early detection of resistance alleles.
Additional References
RELATED GEPHE
Related Haplotypes
No matches found.
EXTERNAL LINKS
COMMENTS
Cluster of paralogous genes
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