GEPHE SUMMARY Print
Entry Status
Published
GepheID
GP00000683
Main curator
Martin
PHENOTYPIC CHANGE
Trait Category
Trait State in Taxon A
Pan troglodytes
Trait State in Taxon B
Homo sapiens
Ancestral State
Taxon A
Taxonomic Status
Taxon A
Common Name
chimpanzee
Synonyms
chimpanzee; Chimpansee troglodytes
Rank
species
Lineage
Show more ... copterygii; Dipnotetrapodomorpha; Tetrapoda; Amniota; Mammalia; Theria; Eutheria; Boreoeutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Simiiformes; Catarrhini; Hominoidea; Hominidae; Homininae; Pan
NCBI Taxonomy ID
is Taxon A an Infraspecies?
No
Taxon B
Latin Name
Common Name
human
Synonyms
human; man; Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758; Home sapiens; Homo sampiens; Homo sapeins; Homo sapian; Homo sapians; Homo sapien; Homo sapience; Homo sapiense; Homo sapients; Homo sapines; Homo spaiens; Homo spiens; Humo sapiens
Rank
species
Lineage
Show more ... opterygii; Dipnotetrapodomorpha; Tetrapoda; Amniota; Mammalia; Theria; Eutheria; Boreoeutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Simiiformes; Catarrhini; Hominoidea; Hominidae; Homininae; Homo
NCBI Taxonomy ID
is Taxon B an Infraspecies?
No
GENOTYPIC CHANGE
Generic Gene Name
MYH16
Synonyms
MYH5
String
-
Sequence Similarities
Belongs to the TRAFAC class myosin-kinesin ATPase superfamily. Myosin family.
GO - Biological Process
-
UniProtKB
Homo sapiens
GenebankID or UniProtKB
Presumptive Null
Yes
Molecular Type
Aberration Type
Deletion Size
1-9 bp
Molecular Details of the Mutation
2bp deletion at codon 660
Experimental Evidence
Authors
Stedman HH; Kozyak BW; Nelson A; Thesier DM; Su LT; Low DW; Bridges CR; Shrager JB; et al. ... show more
Abstract
Powerful masticatory muscles are found in most primates, including chimpanzees and gorillas, and were part of a prominent adaptation of Australopithecus and Paranthropus, extinct genera of the family Hominidae. In contrast, masticatory muscles are considerably smaller in both modern and fossil members of Homo. The evolving hominid masticatory apparatus--traceable to a Late Miocene, chimpanzee-like morphology--shifted towards a pattern of gracilization nearly simultaneously with accelerated encephalization in early Homo. Here, we show that the gene encoding the predominant myosin heavy chain (MYH) expressed in these muscles was inactivated by a frameshifting mutation after the lineages leading to humans and chimpanzees diverged. Loss of this protein isoform is associated with marked size reductions in individual muscle fibres and entire masticatory muscles. Using the coding sequence for the myosin rod domains as a molecular clock, we estimate that this mutation appeared approximately 2.4 million years ago, predating the appearance of modern human body size and emigration of Homo from Africa. This represents the first proteomic distinction between humans and chimpanzees that can be correlated with a traceable anatomic imprint in the fossil record.
Additional References
RELATED GEPHE
Related Genes
No matches found.
Related Haplotypes
No matches found.
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