GEPHE SUMMARY Print
Gephebase Gene
Entry Status
Published
GepheID
GP00000707
Main curator
Courtier
PHENOTYPIC CHANGE
Trait Category
Trait State in Taxon A
Other butterflies
Trait State in Taxon B
Danaus plexippus and Danaus eresimus - highly resistant
Ancestral State
Taxon A
Taxonomic Status
Taxon A
Latin Name
Common Name
brushfoots
Synonyms
brushfoots; brush-footed butterflies
Rank
family
Lineage
Show more ... Mandibulata; Pancrustacea; Hexapoda; Insecta; Dicondylia; Pterygota; Neoptera; Holometabola; Amphiesmenoptera; Lepidoptera; Glossata; Neolepidoptera; Heteroneura; Ditrysia; Obtectomera; Papilionoidea
NCBI Taxonomy ID
is Taxon A an Infraspecies?
No
Taxon B #1
Common Name
monarch butterfly
Synonyms
Danaus (Danaus) plexippus; monarch butterfly; American monarch; Danaus plexippus (Linnaeus, 1758)
Rank
species
Lineage
Show more ... ; Pterygota; Neoptera; Holometabola; Amphiesmenoptera; Lepidoptera; Glossata; Neolepidoptera; Heteroneura; Ditrysia; Obtectomera; Papilionoidea; Nymphalidae; Danainae; Danaini; Danaina; Danaus; Danaus
NCBI Taxonomy ID
is Taxon B an Infraspecies?
No
Taxon B #2
Latin Name
-
Common Name
-
Synonyms
-
Rank
-
Lineage
-
Parent
-
NCBI Taxonomy ID
is Taxon B an Infraspecies?
No
Taxon B #3
Latin Name
Common Name
-
Synonyms
Danaus (Danaus) erippus
Rank
species
Lineage
Show more ... ; Pterygota; Neoptera; Holometabola; Amphiesmenoptera; Lepidoptera; Glossata; Neolepidoptera; Heteroneura; Ditrysia; Obtectomera; Papilionoidea; Nymphalidae; Danainae; Danaini; Danaina; Danaus; Danaus
NCBI Taxonomy ID
is Taxon B an Infraspecies?
No
GENOTYPIC CHANGE
Generic Gene Name
Atp1a1
Synonyms
Atpa-1; BC010319
Sequence Similarities
Belongs to the cation transport ATPase (P-type) (TC 3.A.3) family. Type IIC subfamily.
UniProtKB
Mus musculus
GenebankID or UniProtKB
Mutation #1
Presumptive Null
No
Molecular Type
Aberration Type
SNP
SNP Coding Change
Nonsynonymous
Molecular Details of the Mutation
Q111L
Experimental Evidence
Taxon A Taxon B Position
Codon CAG CTG -
Amino-acid Gln Leu 111
Authors
Aardema ML; Zhen Y; Andolfatto P
Abstract
Cardenolides are a class of plant secondary compounds that inhibit the proper functioning of the Na(+) , K(+) -ATPase enzyme in susceptible animals. Nonetheless, many insect species are able to sequester cardenolides for their own defence. These include butterflies in the subfamily Danainae (Family: Nymphalidae) such as the monarch (Danaus plexippus). Previous studies demonstrated that monarchs harbour an asparagine (N) to histidine (H) substitution (N122H) in the α subunit of Na(+) , K(+) -ATPase (ATPα) that reduces this enzyme's sensitivity to cardenolides. More recently, it has been suggested that at ATPα position 111, monarchs may also harbour a leucine (L)/glutamine (Q) polymorphism. This later amino acid could also contribute to cardenolide insensitivity. However, here we find that incorrect annotation of the initially reported DNA sequence for ATPα has led to several erroneous conclusions. Using a population genetic and phylogenetic analysis of monarchs and their close relatives, we show that an ancient Q111L substitution occurred prior to the radiation of all Danainae, followed by a second substitution at the same site to valine (V), which arose before the diversification of the Danaus genus. In contrast, N122H appears to be a recent substitution specific to monarchs. Surprisingly, examination of a broader insect phylogeny reveals that the same progression of amino acid substitutions (Q111L → L111V + N122H) has also occurred in Chyrsochus beetles (Family: Chrysomelidae, Subfamily: Eumolpinae) that feed on cardenolide-containing host plants. The parallel pattern of amino acid substitution in these two distantly related lineages is consistent with an adaptive role for these substitutions in reducing cardenolide sensitivity and suggests that their temporal order may be limited by epistatic interactions.

© 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Mutation #2
Presumptive Null
No
Molecular Type
Aberration Type
SNP
SNP Coding Change
Nonsynonymous
Molecular Details of the Mutation
A119S
Experimental Evidence
Taxon A Taxon B Position
Codon GCC TCC -
Amino-acid Ala Ser 119
Authors
Aardema ML; Zhen Y; Andolfatto P
Abstract
Cardenolides are a class of plant secondary compounds that inhibit the proper functioning of the Na(+) , K(+) -ATPase enzyme in susceptible animals. Nonetheless, many insect species are able to sequester cardenolides for their own defence. These include butterflies in the subfamily Danainae (Family: Nymphalidae) such as the monarch (Danaus plexippus). Previous studies demonstrated that monarchs harbour an asparagine (N) to histidine (H) substitution (N122H) in the α subunit of Na(+) , K(+) -ATPase (ATPα) that reduces this enzyme's sensitivity to cardenolides. More recently, it has been suggested that at ATPα position 111, monarchs may also harbour a leucine (L)/glutamine (Q) polymorphism. This later amino acid could also contribute to cardenolide insensitivity. However, here we find that incorrect annotation of the initially reported DNA sequence for ATPα has led to several erroneous conclusions. Using a population genetic and phylogenetic analysis of monarchs and their close relatives, we show that an ancient Q111L substitution occurred prior to the radiation of all Danainae, followed by a second substitution at the same site to valine (V), which arose before the diversification of the Danaus genus. In contrast, N122H appears to be a recent substitution specific to monarchs. Surprisingly, examination of a broader insect phylogeny reveals that the same progression of amino acid substitutions (Q111L → L111V + N122H) has also occurred in Chyrsochus beetles (Family: Chrysomelidae, Subfamily: Eumolpinae) that feed on cardenolide-containing host plants. The parallel pattern of amino acid substitution in these two distantly related lineages is consistent with an adaptive role for these substitutions in reducing cardenolide sensitivity and suggests that their temporal order may be limited by epistatic interactions.

© 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Mutation #3
Presumptive Null
No
Molecular Type
Aberration Type
SNP
SNP Coding Change
Nonsynonymous
Molecular Details of the Mutation
L111V
Experimental Evidence
Taxon A Taxon B Position
Codon CTG GTG -
Amino-acid Leu Val 111
Authors
Aardema ML; Zhen Y; Andolfatto P
Abstract
Cardenolides are a class of plant secondary compounds that inhibit the proper functioning of the Na(+) , K(+) -ATPase enzyme in susceptible animals. Nonetheless, many insect species are able to sequester cardenolides for their own defence. These include butterflies in the subfamily Danainae (Family: Nymphalidae) such as the monarch (Danaus plexippus). Previous studies demonstrated that monarchs harbour an asparagine (N) to histidine (H) substitution (N122H) in the α subunit of Na(+) , K(+) -ATPase (ATPα) that reduces this enzyme's sensitivity to cardenolides. More recently, it has been suggested that at ATPα position 111, monarchs may also harbour a leucine (L)/glutamine (Q) polymorphism. This later amino acid could also contribute to cardenolide insensitivity. However, here we find that incorrect annotation of the initially reported DNA sequence for ATPα has led to several erroneous conclusions. Using a population genetic and phylogenetic analysis of monarchs and their close relatives, we show that an ancient Q111L substitution occurred prior to the radiation of all Danainae, followed by a second substitution at the same site to valine (V), which arose before the diversification of the Danaus genus. In contrast, N122H appears to be a recent substitution specific to monarchs. Surprisingly, examination of a broader insect phylogeny reveals that the same progression of amino acid substitutions (Q111L → L111V + N122H) has also occurred in Chyrsochus beetles (Family: Chrysomelidae, Subfamily: Eumolpinae) that feed on cardenolide-containing host plants. The parallel pattern of amino acid substitution in these two distantly related lineages is consistent with an adaptive role for these substitutions in reducing cardenolide sensitivity and suggests that their temporal order may be limited by epistatic interactions.

© 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Mutation #4
Presumptive Null
No
Molecular Type
Aberration Type
SNP
SNP Coding Change
Nonsynonymous
Molecular Details of the Mutation
N122H
Experimental Evidence
Taxon A Taxon B Position
Codon AAT CAT -
Amino-acid Asn His 122
Authors
Aardema ML; Zhen Y; Andolfatto P
Abstract
Cardenolides are a class of plant secondary compounds that inhibit the proper functioning of the Na(+) , K(+) -ATPase enzyme in susceptible animals. Nonetheless, many insect species are able to sequester cardenolides for their own defence. These include butterflies in the subfamily Danainae (Family: Nymphalidae) such as the monarch (Danaus plexippus). Previous studies demonstrated that monarchs harbour an asparagine (N) to histidine (H) substitution (N122H) in the α subunit of Na(+) , K(+) -ATPase (ATPα) that reduces this enzyme's sensitivity to cardenolides. More recently, it has been suggested that at ATPα position 111, monarchs may also harbour a leucine (L)/glutamine (Q) polymorphism. This later amino acid could also contribute to cardenolide insensitivity. However, here we find that incorrect annotation of the initially reported DNA sequence for ATPα has led to several erroneous conclusions. Using a population genetic and phylogenetic analysis of monarchs and their close relatives, we show that an ancient Q111L substitution occurred prior to the radiation of all Danainae, followed by a second substitution at the same site to valine (V), which arose before the diversification of the Danaus genus. In contrast, N122H appears to be a recent substitution specific to monarchs. Surprisingly, examination of a broader insect phylogeny reveals that the same progression of amino acid substitutions (Q111L → L111V + N122H) has also occurred in Chyrsochus beetles (Family: Chrysomelidae, Subfamily: Eumolpinae) that feed on cardenolide-containing host plants. The parallel pattern of amino acid substitution in these two distantly related lineages is consistent with an adaptive role for these substitutions in reducing cardenolide sensitivity and suggests that their temporal order may be limited by epistatic interactions.

© 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
RELATED GEPHE
Related Genes
Related Haplotypes
No matches found.
COMMENTS
@SeveralMutationsWithEffect @Epistasis @& taxon 165861 Danaus eresimus in Taxon B is not indicated
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