GEPHE SUMMARY Print
Gephebase Gene
Entry Status
Published
GepheID
GP00000821
Main curator
Martin
PHENOTYPIC CHANGE
Trait Category
Trait State in Taxon A
Sensitive to Pyrethroids
Trait State in Taxon B
Resistant to Pyrethroids
Ancestral State
Taxon A
Taxonomic Status
Taxon A
Common Name
-
Synonyms
Anopheles (Anopheles) sinensis; Anopheles sinensis Wiedemann, 1828
Rank
species
Lineage
Show more ... a; Hexapoda; Insecta; Dicondylia; Pterygota; Neoptera; Holometabola; Diptera; Nematocera; Culicomorpha; Culicoidea; Culicidae; Anophelinae; Anopheles; Anopheles; Laticorn; Myzorhynchus; hyrcanus group
NCBI Taxonomy ID
is Taxon A an Infraspecies?
No
Taxon B
Common Name
-
Synonyms
Anopheles (Anopheles) sinensis; Anopheles sinensis Wiedemann, 1828
Rank
species
Lineage
Show more ... a; Hexapoda; Insecta; Dicondylia; Pterygota; Neoptera; Holometabola; Diptera; Nematocera; Culicomorpha; Culicoidea; Culicidae; Anophelinae; Anopheles; Anopheles; Laticorn; Myzorhynchus; hyrcanus group
NCBI Taxonomy ID
is Taxon B an Infraspecies?
No
GENOTYPIC CHANGE
Mutation #1
Presumptive Null
No
Molecular Type
Aberration Type
SNP
SNP Coding Change
Nonsynonymous
Molecular Details of the Mutation
L1014F
Experimental Evidence
Taxon A Taxon B Position
Codon TTG TTT -
Amino-acid Leu Phe 1014
Authors
Tan WL; Wang ZM; Li CX; Chu HL; Xu Y; Dong YD; Wang ZC; Chen DY; et al. ... show more
Abstract
The increasing prevalence of insecticide resistance in Anopheles sinensis, a major vector of malaria in Jiangsu province in eastern China, threatens to compromise the successful use of insecticides in malaria control strategies. It is therefore vital to understand the insecticide resistance status of An. sinensis in the region. This study examined the nucleotide diversity of the para-sodium channel and knockdown resistance (kdr) in five field populations of adult An. sinensis mosquitoes collected in Jiangsu province, identifying the L1014F and L1014C substitutions for the first time. Competitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of specific allele (cPASA) and polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) for resistance diagnosis were developed and validated. Comparing the results with direct sequencing revealed that the PCR-RFLP method was more sensitive and specific whereas the cPASA method was more convenient and suitable. The significant positive correlation between kdr allele frequency and bioassay-based resistance phenotype demonstrates that the frequency of L1014F and L1014C substitutions in the kdr gene provides a useful molecular marker for monitoring beta-cypermethrin resistance in natural populations of An. sinensis. Our results point to the L1014F substitution as the key mutation associated with beta-cypermethrin resistance. The high resistance and mutation frequency detected in the five populations also suggest cross-resistance with other pyrethroids may occur in An. sinensis, highlighting the need for further surveys to map insecticide resistance in China and the adoption of a rational management of insecticide application for resistance management and mosquito vector control.
Additional References
Mutation #2
Presumptive Null
No
Molecular Type
Aberration Type
SNP
SNP Coding Change
Nonsynonymous
Molecular Details of the Mutation
F1014C
Experimental Evidence
Taxon A Taxon B Position
Codon TTT TGT -
Amino-acid Phe Cys 1014
Authors
Tan WL; Wang ZM; Li CX; Chu HL; Xu Y; Dong YD; Wang ZC; Chen DY; et al. ... show more
Abstract
The increasing prevalence of insecticide resistance in Anopheles sinensis, a major vector of malaria in Jiangsu province in eastern China, threatens to compromise the successful use of insecticides in malaria control strategies. It is therefore vital to understand the insecticide resistance status of An. sinensis in the region. This study examined the nucleotide diversity of the para-sodium channel and knockdown resistance (kdr) in five field populations of adult An. sinensis mosquitoes collected in Jiangsu province, identifying the L1014F and L1014C substitutions for the first time. Competitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of specific allele (cPASA) and polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) for resistance diagnosis were developed and validated. Comparing the results with direct sequencing revealed that the PCR-RFLP method was more sensitive and specific whereas the cPASA method was more convenient and suitable. The significant positive correlation between kdr allele frequency and bioassay-based resistance phenotype demonstrates that the frequency of L1014F and L1014C substitutions in the kdr gene provides a useful molecular marker for monitoring beta-cypermethrin resistance in natural populations of An. sinensis. Our results point to the L1014F substitution as the key mutation associated with beta-cypermethrin resistance. The high resistance and mutation frequency detected in the five populations also suggest cross-resistance with other pyrethroids may occur in An. sinensis, highlighting the need for further surveys to map insecticide resistance in China and the adoption of a rational management of insecticide application for resistance management and mosquito vector control.
RELATED GEPHE
Related Genes
No matches found.
Related Haplotypes
4
EXTERNAL LINKS
COMMENTS
@TwoNucleotideChangesInSameCodon @SuccessiveMutationsAtSameCodon - The intermediate sequence carrying only the first mutation is present within the population.
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