GEPHE SUMMARY Print
Gephebase Gene
Entry Status
Published
GepheID
GP00001862
Main curator
Courtier
PHENOTYPIC CHANGE
Trait Category
Trait State in Taxon A
Trialeurodes vaporariorum
Trait State in Taxon B
Trialeurodes vaporariorum - resistant
Ancestral State
Data not curated
Taxonomic Status
Taxon A
Common Name
greenhouse whitefly
Synonyms
greenhouse whitefly; Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood, 1856); Trialeurodes vaporarium
Rank
species
Lineage
Show more ... Panarthropoda; Arthropoda; Mandibulata; Pancrustacea; Hexapoda; Insecta; Dicondylia; Pterygota; Neoptera; Paraneoptera; Hemiptera; Sternorrhyncha; Aleyrodoidea; Aleyrodidae; Aleyrodinae; Trialeurodes
NCBI Taxonomy ID
is Taxon A an Infraspecies?
No
Taxon B
Common Name
greenhouse whitefly
Synonyms
greenhouse whitefly; Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood, 1856); Trialeurodes vaporarium
Rank
species
Lineage
Show more ... Panarthropoda; Arthropoda; Mandibulata; Pancrustacea; Hexapoda; Insecta; Dicondylia; Pterygota; Neoptera; Paraneoptera; Hemiptera; Sternorrhyncha; Aleyrodoidea; Aleyrodidae; Aleyrodinae; Trialeurodes
NCBI Taxonomy ID
is Taxon B an Infraspecies?
No
GENOTYPIC CHANGE
Mutation #1
Presumptive Null
No
Molecular Type
Aberration Type
SNP
SNP Coding Change
Nonsynonymous
Molecular Details of the Mutation
L925I
Experimental Evidence
Taxon A Taxon B Position
Codon TTA ATA -
Amino-acid Leu Ile 925
Authors
Kapantaidaki DE; Sadikoglou E; Tsakireli D; Kampanis V; Stavrakaki M; Schorn C; Ilias A; Riga M; et al. ... show more
Abstract
Neonicotinoids, pyrethroids and ketoenols are currently used for the control of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). In this study, insecticide resistance status and mechanisms were investigated using classical bioassays and molecular techniques.

Dose-response bioassays were performed on 19 Greek populations, among the 35 different whitefly populations used for the whole analysis. Resistance factors scaled up to 207-, 4657- and 59-fold for imidacloprid, bifenthrin and spiromesifen, respectively. Molecular assays were used to investigate the frequency of known resistance mutations. A simple polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay was developed for detecting the pyrethroid-resistant alleles r1 (mutation L925I) and r2 (mutation T929I) of the para-type voltage-gated sodium channel gene (VGSC). Both alleles were present at high frequencies (on average 65% and 33%, respectively) in 14 populations from Greece. The M918 L pyrethroid resistance mutation was not detected in any of the Greek populations. Sequencing and a Taqman allelic discrimination were used to monitor the frequency of the mutation E645K of the acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase gene (ACC) recently linked to spiromesifen resistance. This mutation was detected in 20 of the 24 populations examined in ∼38% frequency among the 433 individuals tested. However, its association with the spiromesifen resistance phenotype was not confirmed in the Greek populations. Finally, two homologues of the CYP6CM1 Bemisia tabaci P450, the known neonicotinoid metabolizer, were found upregulated in two T. vaporariorum neonicotinoid-resistant populations; they were both functionally expressed in Escherichia coli, but the recombinant proteins encoded did not metabolize those neonicotinoid insecticides tested.

The development of simple diagnostics and their use alongside classical and molecular techniques for the early detection of resistant populations are of great importance for pest management strategies. The practical implications of our results are discussed in light of whitefly control. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

© 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
Additional References
Mutation #2
Presumptive Null
No
Molecular Type
Aberration Type
SNP
SNP Coding Change
Nonsynonymous
Molecular Details of the Mutation
T929I
Experimental Evidence
Taxon A Taxon B Position
Codon ACT ATT -
Amino-acid Thr Ile 925
Authors
Kapantaidaki DE; Sadikoglou E; Tsakireli D; Kampanis V; Stavrakaki M; Schorn C; Ilias A; Riga M; et al. ... show more
Abstract
Neonicotinoids, pyrethroids and ketoenols are currently used for the control of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). In this study, insecticide resistance status and mechanisms were investigated using classical bioassays and molecular techniques.

Dose-response bioassays were performed on 19 Greek populations, among the 35 different whitefly populations used for the whole analysis. Resistance factors scaled up to 207-, 4657- and 59-fold for imidacloprid, bifenthrin and spiromesifen, respectively. Molecular assays were used to investigate the frequency of known resistance mutations. A simple polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay was developed for detecting the pyrethroid-resistant alleles r1 (mutation L925I) and r2 (mutation T929I) of the para-type voltage-gated sodium channel gene (VGSC). Both alleles were present at high frequencies (on average 65% and 33%, respectively) in 14 populations from Greece. The M918 L pyrethroid resistance mutation was not detected in any of the Greek populations. Sequencing and a Taqman allelic discrimination were used to monitor the frequency of the mutation E645K of the acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase gene (ACC) recently linked to spiromesifen resistance. This mutation was detected in 20 of the 24 populations examined in ∼38% frequency among the 433 individuals tested. However, its association with the spiromesifen resistance phenotype was not confirmed in the Greek populations. Finally, two homologues of the CYP6CM1 Bemisia tabaci P450, the known neonicotinoid metabolizer, were found upregulated in two T. vaporariorum neonicotinoid-resistant populations; they were both functionally expressed in Escherichia coli, but the recombinant proteins encoded did not metabolize those neonicotinoid insecticides tested.

The development of simple diagnostics and their use alongside classical and molecular techniques for the early detection of resistant populations are of great importance for pest management strategies. The practical implications of our results are discussed in light of whitefly control. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

© 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
Additional References
RELATED GEPHE
Related Genes
No matches found.
Related Haplotypes
1
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